Wednesday, February 2, 2011


          The  Terai  region  is  in  the  southern  part  of  the  country.  The  Terai  being  an  extension  of  the  Gangetic  plains  of  India,  forms  a  low  land.  It stretches from Mechi   to Mahakali.  It  covers  about  17%  of  the  total  land  of  the  country.  According  to  2001 AD  it  covers  about  49%  of  the  population  of  the  country  and  it  is  an  increasing  rate.  The land topography of this region is plain.  The climate of this region is warm and humid. 

The plain part of southern region of Nepal is Terai.  20 districts of Nepal come under this region.  Jhapa, Dhanusa, Nawalparasi, Dang are some  districts.  It’s  breadth  is  20  to  30  kilometers  and  it  is  formed  of  fertile  and  fine  soil.  The  rivers  flowing  from  the  north  to  the  south  bring  sand  pebbles stones  and  make  the  soil  fertile.  There  are many  longitudinal  valley sand  the  Terai  region  can  be  sub-divided  into  three  regions  Inner  Terai,  Bhabar  Terai  and  Main  Terai.

                The structures of ecosystem of this region are different. So there are different kinds of animals, birds, vegetation and other living organism. The lion, elephant, leopard, musk deer are found in the forest .The king vulture, dove, cuckoo, peacock and various birds are found here. The trees and plants of tropical and sub-tropical climate like Sal tree, bamboo, papal, Katus etc. Mostly the cultivation is done in the southern part of Terai. The cultivation such as paddy, maize, sugarcane is done. The farmers can conduct several agricultural activities for their development of the country.

        As the climate of this region is warm and humid there is alluvial soil. This region is also called house of food grains as there are small and large scale industries. The main occupation of people living in this region can be taken as agriculture, trade and service. There are thick and thin settlement in some places. There are also big towns in the place like Biratnagar, Mahendranagar, Siddharthanagar. There is also migration from hilly to the terai due to the different facilities available here. By the census report of 2058 B.S, 48.43% live here. The people sustain their life by involving them in animal husbandry, fish farming occupation.  


The  hilly  region  is   situated   in  the   middle  part  of  the  country  between  the  Himalayan  region  and  the  Terai  region.  It  also  spreads  from  east  to  west  and  lies  between  the  altitudes  of  610 m  to  4877 m  from  sea  level.  The  region  occupies  68%  of  the  total  land  area  of  the  country.  It  has  mild  climate  which  is  neither  hot  nor  cold.  The  people  living  in  higher  altitudes  profession  are  animal  husbandry,  cottage  industry  and  cultivation  of  the  cereals  like  maize,  millet,  fruits  and  vegetables  and  the  people  living  in  the  lower  attitude  cultivate  variety  of  cereal  crops  and  cash  crops.  The  hilly  region  has  its  own  ecological  status  due  to  land  topography,  tropical  structure,  climate,  biodiversity  and  creatures.

All  the  physical  products  available  in  the  mountain  region  and  the  terai  region  come  under  this  region.  As said before it has mild climate.  Hills  of  different  heights,  wide,  broad,  basins,  narrow  valleys  are  found in  this  region.  In  this  region  35  district  lie  out  of  the  total  country.  Ilam,  Panchthar,  Gorkha,  Sindhuli,  Pyuthan,  are  some  of  the  district  which  lie  in  this  region.  This  region  also  can  be  divided  into  three  sub-divisions  as  Mahabharat  ,  Middle  land  and  Chure  range.  There is also diversity in this region.

The  hilly  region  is  sub-divided  into  three  range  which  have  some  difference  in  the  structure  of  their  ecosystem.  Various  kinds  of  thick  forest  are  available  in  some  part  of  this  region.  Sal,  Chilaune,  bamboo,  timber,  katus,  oak  like  plants  and  trees  are  available  here.  The cultivation of maize, millet, soyabean, etc  are  done.  Many birds and animals live here.  It  is  a  proper  place  for  animals  husbandry  and  fruits.  Different  kinds  of  biological  aspects  have  helped  this  region  and  is  also  helpful  for  other  valuable  organism.

In  this  region  fertile  land  can  be  found  and  there  is  wider  diversity  of  land.  The cultivation of the paddy  is done  in  irrigated  land.  This region is also suitable  for  agricultural  occupation.  People keep domestic animals like cow, sheep, goat, buffalo, etc.  The  people  live  in  plain,  big  and  small  and  narrow  valleys  of  this  region.  There are rural  settlement in  this  area.  The  major  cities  like  Kathmandu  and  Pokhara  lies  in  this  region.  The population is high in Kathmandu valley.  The  castes  such  as  Rai,  Limbu,  Magar,  Damai,  etc  live  here.  There  is  also  a  large  number  of  houses  made  up  of  bricks,  mud, tiles,  etc  and  many  houses  are  made  up  of  stone  and  soil  with  roof  covered  with  tiles.  Similarly  in  urban  areas  the  houses  are  made  up  of  cement  and  iron  bars  using  the  modern  technology.  The  main  occupation  of  the  people  living  in  this  region  is  agriculture.  Some people run business and some have services.  It has a pleasant natural environment and trekking.  Here some people are engaged in the tourism industry. 


      The Himalayan Region lies to the north of the country which covers the mountainous area of the country. 15% of the total land area has been encompassed by this region.  Only 2% is arable as the land is very cold, covered with rugged surface and snow. The altitude ranges between 4,877 meter to 8,848 meter above sea levels. In this region there are many pastures, gorges, passes, small lakes, glaciers and falls. So this region is suitable for animal rearing and tourism. Due to geographical situation and climatic conditions, this region has a very less density of population. In 2001 AD, this region accommodated 7.3% the population of the country but at a decreasing rate. Almost all big rivers running through the country originate from this region. In this region people die due to starvation. The fruits produced in Hilly and Himalayan region decay before reaching Terai region people. The people leave the place of their origin of difficult living and migrate to the place of the destination of possible easy living. So density of the people increases in the Terai region. So their appear a big gap between the places of easy and difficult living within the country. The Terai, valleys, river basins, tars and gentle slopes become much more developed than other parts. So, regional disparity occurs, and local resources cannot be utilized properly, administration cannot be carried out smoothly and national dis-integrity may occur. To overcome such problem, there is the need of development regions. However,  there  is  a  diversity  in  ecosystem  and  human  activities  according  to  geographical  belts.
    Eco-System  Of  Mountain  Belt  And  Its  Related  Aspects

The  land  topography,  rivers,  streams,  climate,  etc  constitute  the  physical  aspects  of  mountain  belt.  About  35%  of  the  total  land  of  the  country  makes  the  mountain  region  but  only  2%  of  the  land  is  cultivable.  The climate of this region is moist, cold and dry.  Even the snowfall takes in this region. The  highest  and  the  most  luring  mountains  lie  in  this  region  such  as  Sagarmatha  i.e. Mt. Everest Kanchanjunga, Lantang, Mahalangar, Ganesh, Annapurna, Dhaulagiri, Kangiroba, etc.  Out  of  75  districts  16  districts  lie  in  this  region  some  of  which  are  Taplejung,  Dolkha,  Mustang, Darchula,  etc.  It  can  be  divided  into  three  sub-regions  which  are  Main  Himalayas,  Inner  Himalayas  and  Marginal  Himalayas.  The  status  of  diversity  of  ecosystem  can  be  known  from  the  study  of  these  three  sub-regions.

This  region  can  also  be  considered  as     the  shelter  of  vegetations,  agricultural  crops,  different  kinds  of  birds  and  animals.  Cultivation  of  millet,  barley,  wheat,  maize,  buckwheat,  etc  are  done  in  this  region.  Cultivation  of  green  vegetable,  potato,  radish,  etc  and  fruits  like  apple,  lemon,  peach,  etc  are  common  in  this  region.  In some ditches and valleys, cultivation of paddy is  done.  Besides,  there  are  alpine  forests  and  grass  fields  in  some  places.  Oaks,  maples,  pines,  birches,  rhododendron,  blue  pine,  etc  are  also  found  in  this  belt.  Small plants and bushes are found above 4000 meters.   Birds  and  animals  like  ghoral,  snow  leopard,  bog,  black  bear,  pygmy,  pheasant,  Munal,  Kalij,  etc  are  available  in  this   region. 

Due  to  hard  and  cold  climate  and  difficult  land  topography,  farming  is  very  difficult.  However,  the  farming  of  Yak  and  sheep  is  done  on  a  large  scale.  But  due  to  snowfall  from  time  to  time,  vegetation  cannot  grow  and  develop.  The  chief  occupation  of  the  people  living  in Himalayan  region  is  animal  husbandry.  The  settlement  zone  is  up to  the  height  of  about  4572  meters.  Tribes  like  Mugal,  Managi,  Thakalis,  Sherpa’s,  etc  live  in  this  region. The  lifestyle,  fooding,  clothing,  occupation  of  the  people  of  Himalayan  region  is  different  from  that  of  other  regions.  Houses  are  built  with  beaten  stone  and  wood  with  doors  and  windows  small.  People wear thick woolen garments.  According  to  the  census  of  2058 B.S,  the  population  of  Himalayan  region  was  7.3%  out  of  the  total  population  of  the  country.  The  chief  source  of  income  is  animal  husbandry  and  small  closed  trades.  Due  to  the  limitations  of  physical  facilities  such  as  transport ,  communication,  electricity,  etc,  the  life  of  people  has  turned  out  to  become  very  difficult.

Saturday, January 8, 2011


   The word “Shrawan” implies rain, as this month falls in the rainy season. Shrawan is not only known as a rainy month but also the month of rituals. In the present context of Kathmandu valley, it is a very pleasant month for the youngsters as they put “mehendi” in their palm and wear green bangles in their hands which are very exciting. This month is not just pleasant for youngsters but also for the farmers as Shrawan is known as harvesting month. This is known as harvesting month. This month brings smiles in almost each and every persons face weather they are child or adult or old. The month Shrawan is the best month for almost every persons face weather they are persons or adult or old.
                                                                                               The month Shrawan is the best month for almost every people of Nepal as Nepal is a religious country and a number of rituals are performed in this month. This month is not exciting just for the limited people but for everyone in the Nepal. This month brings a big smile in the face of farmers as this month is known for harvesting month and farmers can sow their seeds due to which their income goes on increasing day by day. This month is also exciting for the married women as well as unmarried women as they get to put “mehendi” in their palm and wear green bangles in their hands. Both married and unmarried women observe fast on every Monday of the month Shrawan. Married women observe fast for the good health of their husband and unmarried women observe fast for getting a good husband in the future. Along with the old people and women, this month is exciting for the youngsters as in this month it rains and all youngsters enjoy a lot getting wet in the rain.
                       The month of Shrawan is pleasant not for a particulars persons but for everyone as seeds are grown in this month and there is no scarcity of food for the people all over the country. It is pleasant for the women although they observe fast because they observe this fast not for themselves but for the long life of their husband, as the month of Shiva, the Lord of Destruction. 

Tuesday, January 4, 2011


                                                         OUR IDENTITY
   Identity means state of being identical or absolute sameness or exact likeness. Due to identity only we can be recognized among others in this world. It helps each and every people of the world to be recognized among others as who they are. Today we are known for bravery in the world due to our brave warriors like Amar Singh Thapa,Bhakti Thapa, Balbhadra Kunwar,Ranbir Singh Thapa, Ujar Singh Thapa etc. who even sacrificed their life for their country. There are many factors due to which we are identified as Nepalese people in the world. Some of the factors which have shaped our identity as Nepalese people are national, cultural, social, and religious factors. Besides, brave ancestors, we are also identified in the midst of the world as nepali due to kingship, national language, religious tolerance, national symbol, our unique tradition, our unique nature, birthplace of famous people, unique geographical features and unity in diversity. These symbols of identity help us to march forward in the midst of different people to prove our potentialities. We have been able to introduce ourselves as a ‘Nepali’ in the world due to those symbols of identity. Identity is not gained in a day instead it takes time and is difficult to maintain. Human without identity is useless or simply valueless. We can never develop ourselves until we respect and maintain our identity. Bringing changes in one’s life doesn’t really mean changing the identity. Identity is like a shadow which always walks with us and it is also considered as the soul which never dies.

                                          NATIONAL LANGUAGE
      Nepal is a beautiful country decorated with different colours of various languages. Nepal is made up of five development regions, fourteen zones, seventy-five districts, fifty-eight municipalities and three thousand nine hundred thirteen village development committees including one metropolitan and four sub-metropolitan. There are various people of different castes living in Nepal who speak different languages. Every community have its own mother tongue. There are more than 200 languages being spoken in Nepal. Whatever the language the people may speak, the principal, national and official language of Nepal is Nepali. It is also considered as the local languages because the local people of different communities communicate with each other in Nepali.Except Nepali the other languages spoken in Nepal are Maithili, Newari, Tharu etc. But all the governmental and official documents are presented in Nepali language. Nepali language has become one of our identities as we can express our thoughts and feelings through this language with the other people in the community. It has helped people to come closer and develop understanding among them. Language is like a thread and people are like flowers .So just as thread keeps the flowers together, language lings the people with one another.
               Though Nepal is small in size, it is considered as a world in itself. It consists of various customs and traditions, various races of people, various climates and vegetations, customs and traditions. Under one umbrella of kingship these all above varieties are bought up. “Nepal is a garden in which four castes and thirty-six sub castes blossom forth” has being said by King Prithivi Narayan Shah, who is the founder of modern Nepal. King Prithivi Narayan Shah wanted to protect the country from the claws of the British Empire, along with the expansion of Gorhka kingdom. By uniting the small kingdoms into a strong nation, he wanted to foil the evil designs of the British. King Prithivi Narayan Shah had united the whole nation together. Before, at the advent of democratic age, our king exercises limited powers under the constitution. Before he was constitutional monarch. However, the King and the Royal Family were the center of attraction. The people used to respect them and were liked by children also but due to some circumstances which is not possible now. Before King were the symbol of national unity and national integration. Thus, the age of old tradition of kingship was the elements of our identity.

                                         OUR CULTURES AND TRADITIONS
                       Cultures and traditions are those types of rituals which are followed or celebrated from one generation to another generation. Our lifestyle is guided due to our cultures and tradition only. Some cultures and traditions of certain community are discussed here as examples. Masto tradition of the Mid and Far –Western Development Regions. The Masto tradition is the main identity of the Khas people of Mid and Far-Western Development Region. They regard this tradition as their main deity during Dewali. The Masto tradition provides a unique identity to them. In the Masto tradition they believe that one of the Masto has enter the body of the Dhami and they can do divinie things like putting the hands into boiling oil, breaking an iron chain etc.which might even kill them. Fasting rituals in Awadhi society. Women practice fasting more than men in the Awadhi society. This is due to the belief that if a women keeps a fast her wish will be fulfilled i.e. if an unmarried women keeps a fast, then she will be blessed with an honourable and caring husband and a married women keeps the fast for the long life of her husband and good fortune,well being and prosperity of her family. Marga puja of the Athpariya Rais-The Marga is the main God or Deity of the Athpariya Rais.The Marga is established as a Than and worshipped atleast for three times in a year. If there is a vow, of a worship, Marga Puja can be performed anytime in the year. While performing the Puja, various animals are sacrificed. The Puja’s are performed with great enthusiasm. Culture is the reflection of what people think and what people believe.

                       Murtikala is defined as making objects of different shapes, sizes and features of glasses, metals, woods, clay, stones, etc. Mutrikala is believed to have started in Nepal from the Lichchhavi period. The sculpture of Baman Tribikram erected by the Lichchhavi King by Man Dev is considered to be the oldest sculpture of Nepal. Likewise the sculptures of Birupakchya and Yakchya are also among the oldest sculptures of Nepal.Sclupture started in the Lichchhavi period and reached to its peak in the Malla Period. It was the golden period of Murtikala due to the advancement made in this sector. The tradition of making statues of metals,stones and wood was very common during the Malla period. Many such sculptures were made in the Kathmandu Valley. Though Murtikala didn’t get much attention in the Shah and Rana period, there are only some statues of Rana Prime Ministers and Shah Kings at different places of Nepal. Therefore, the state of ancient Murtikala in Nepal was pretty good. Malla period is considered as the golden period of Murtikala as this art had reached to the peak in the Malla period. Sculptures built in and around in Changu Narayan Temple, statue of Palanchowk Bhagwati, statue of Bhudanil-kantha, different stones statues and spots are some of the examples of Nepalese Murtikalas.  Sculptures are the creativity and imagination of people which are observed in stones, woods,etc.  

                                             ARCHITECTURES (BASTUKALA)
                Bastu means a place of dwelling. Architecture is defined as the art if dealing with a place of dwelling. Just like the art of painting and sculpture, the ancient architecture of Nepal is found to be excellent even from the scientific point of view. In the ancient age, the palaces of Lichchhavi Kings “Mangriha” of Mandev, “Kailashkut Bhawan” of Amshuverma and “Bhadradiwas Bhavan” of Narendradev were renowned. These objects of architecture exists no more. However, palaces, temples, monasteries and stupas built during the medieval age still continue to grace modern age. These architecture are decorated with stone and wood carvings. The tallest temple built during medieval age is the “Nyatapol” meaning five storied temple. In seventeen hundred two A.D.Bhupatindra Malla, King of Bhaktapur established the image of Goddess Laxmi in the temple. Not only in the ancient and medieval age but even till today have Nepali artists been contributing in the field of paintings, sculptures and architecture. Ancient architecture is divided into three categories-“the Pagoda Style” It means the styles of having more than one roofs with a boarder base and gradually narrowing tops. Mangriha of Mandev temple of Changu Narayan, Kailaskut Bhawan of Amshuverma, Bhadradhiwas of Narendradev of ancient times are some of the excellent examples of Nepalese Architecture.The Shikhar style looks like the peak of mountain. The top most part of each structure consists of pinnacle. It is divided into five or nine parts in a vertical manner. Example Krishna Mandir, Janki Mandiretc. Now the Stupa style looks like hillock. It is a shrine with a broad base of its gradual upward narrowing. It does not have any division.Boudhanath,Swayambhunath etc are some of the examples of stupa style.

                                      NATIONAL SYMBOLS
        Our identification is marked due to our National symbols.
1.     National Flag-Our National flag consists of two triangular figures with a crimson color base and deep blue boarders. A white moon is imprinted in upper part and the white sun if imprinted in the lower part. The sun and moon in the flag indicates that as long as there is sun and moon in the sky Nepal will exist.
2.     National Flower- The rhododendron (Laliguras) is our national flower. Rhododendron is also a source of medicine and people usually keep the flower in the hair to make themselves look attractive.
3.     National Color-Crimson (Simrik) is our national color.
4.     National Animal-The cow is our national animal. The cow is regarded as god in various culture.It’s products are used to meet various necessity.
5.     National Bird- The Lophophorus(Danphe) is our national bird.
6.     National Dress- Daura, suruwal, patuka and cap for men; and fariya, chawbandi cholo and majetro for women.In the celebration of national events,people decorate themselves in the national dress.
7.     National Anthem-Our previous national anthem was written by Chakrapani Chalise and recent national anthem is written by Bhyakul Maila(Pradeep Kumar Rai) and the music is given by Ambar Gurung
                               OUR UNIQUE NATURE
         Nepal is a peace-loving country and it has signed many peace agreement with other countries. Our country take part in active roles in all international peace-keeping activities. We are the member of international organizations like UNO,NAM,SAARC etc.On the other hand, Nepali soldier are known as the world bravest, most courageous and boldest in war. Many other countries army consists of Nepali soldiers. India, Britain, Singapore, Malaysia, Brunei etc prefer Nepali soldiers to others.Many brave soldier earned their reputation in the different wars of Nepal. They are popularly known as ‘Gurkhas’ in India and Britian. Nepal has been contributing a lot for maintaining peace in the world by sending its army forces to different countries and even to the UNO. Thus, on the other hand, our nation try to avoid wars and bring a peace in the country. So in this way, there are a number of element that gives our identity. We should move forward with our helping hands to preserve our nations and traditions which was established by our ancestors. We know that our economy condition is very poor, but we are rich in culture, tradition and morality. Honesty, truthfulness and sincerity are such quality of our people. We must be proud and we should know one thing that this is the greatest wealth one can achieve in life which are our social norms and values.

Our country Nepal has some world renowned people. During the pre-historic age, saints like Veda Vyasa, Valmiki, and Kanwa use to live there. Veda Vyasa had composed Mahabharat at Vyas Cave in Damauli. Valmiki also spent some time at Bhainsalotan in Nawalparasi and has composed Ramayan. Kanwa Rishi who bought up Shakuntala’s son Bharat and he ruled over it. Our country also is the birthplace of Gautam Buddha. Gautam Buddha was born in Lumbini. Gautam Buddha was the founder of Buddhism and preacher of peace and non-violence in the world. Tenzing was also one person who climb the first Mount Everest. Tenzing was born in Solukhumbhu district. Along with Tenzing Edmund Hillary of New Zealand also climbed it. King Tsrong Sang Gampo of Tibet who spread Buddhism and Nepali culture in Tibet and China. Similarly, Arniko, was the first Nepali artist and architect, who was sent to Tibet and China to built several Nepali structures there. Thus, there are number of people who are gained world-wide popularity in different areas, were born in Nepal. Nepal and all the Nepalese are proud of them.

                     UNITY IN DIVERSITY
  People having common aspirations and are united by a bond of allegiance to our national independence, integrity, national interest and prosperity. Nepal is a multiracial,multilingual,multi-religious and multi-cultural country. The people living in Nepal belongs to many castes, ethenic groups, religion, race, languages, communities and follow different cultures. Some people are Buddhists where some are Hindu, some are Rais, some are Limbu, and some are Newars while some are magars but we all are united under one flag. We may be different of various factors but we are united by a bond of allegiance to national integrity and prosperity. There is unity in diversity in Nepal. Unity means being one or means varieties or difference on the basic of factors. Nepalese people belong to different religion, have different language, follow different culture but are unified under one Nepali flag. We have 4 castes and 36 sub-castes but we tried to maintain our diversity. It forces the state to terminate any law that results to discrimination. The state is also adopting policies to provide equal opportunities to women, suppressed native and ethnic groups, madhesis, Muslims, kamaiyas, physically challenged, etc on the basis of poisitive discrimination. So, priority must be given equally to every languages and religion to maintain diversity. All of us love our mother Nepal and we all try our best to develop our Nepal and promote peace and stability in it. Therefore, we can say that there is unity in diversity in Nepal.