The Terai region is in the southern part of the country. The Terai being an extension of the Gangetic plains of India, forms a low land. It stretches from Mechi to Mahakali. It covers about 17% of the total land of the country. According to 2001 AD it covers about 49% of the population of the country and it is an increasing rate. The land topography of this region is plain. The climate of this region is warm and humid.
The plain part of southern region of Nepal is Terai. 20 districts of Nepal come under this region. Jhapa, Dhanusa, Nawalparasi, Dang are some districts. It’s breadth is 20 to 30 kilometers and it is formed of fertile and fine soil. The rivers flowing from the north to the south bring sand pebbles stones and make the soil fertile. There are many longitudinal valley sand the Terai region can be sub-divided into three regions Inner Terai, Bhabar Terai and Main Terai.
The structures of ecosystem of this region are different. So there are different kinds of animals, birds, vegetation and other living organism. The lion, elephant, leopard, musk deer are found in the forest .The king vulture, dove, cuckoo, peacock and various birds are found here. The trees and plants of tropical and sub-tropical climate like Sal tree, bamboo, papal, Katus etc. Mostly the cultivation is done in the southern part of Terai. The cultivation such as paddy, maize, sugarcane is done. The farmers can conduct several agricultural activities for their development of the country.
As the climate of this region is warm and humid there is alluvial soil. This region is also called house of food grains as there are small and large scale industries. The main occupation of people living in this region can be taken as agriculture, trade and service. There are thick and thin settlement in some places. There are also big towns in the place like Biratnagar, Mahendranagar, Siddharthanagar. There is also migration from hilly to the terai due to the different facilities available here. By the census report of 2058 B.S, 48.43% live here. The people sustain their life by involving them in animal husbandry, fish farming occupation.